Ghost in the Shell (攻殻機動隊, Kōkaku Kidōtai?) es un manga de ciencia ficción creado por Masamune Shirow.

La historia ha progresado con dos mangas más (Ghost in the Shell 2: Man/Machine Interface y Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error Processor), además de dos películas animadas (Ghost in the Shell y Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence), una serie de televisión con dos temporadas (Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex y Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. 2nd GIG), un OVA (Ghost in the Shell: S.A.C. Solid State Society) y tres videojuegos. Cada obra tiene una línea argumental libre.

Sinopsis

Ambientada en el siglo XXI, Ghost in the Shell, GitS para abreviar, se presenta en una primera lectura como un thriller futurista de espionaje, al narrar las misiones de Motoko Kusanagi, la Mayor a cargo de las operaciones encubiertas de la “Sección Policial de Seguridad pública 9” o simplemente “Sección 9”, especializada en crímenes tecnológicos. La misma Kusanagi es un cyborg, un cerebro humano en un cuerpo artificial, lo que le permite ser capaz de realizar hazañas sobrehumanas especialmente requeridas por su labor.

Ambientación

La ambientación de Ghost in the Shell es innegablemente cyberpunk y nos recuerda a la famosa Trilogía del Sprawl de William Gibson. Sin embargo, a diferencia de Gibson, Shirow se interesa más en las consecuencias éticas y filosóficas de la popularización de la unión entre hombre y máquina, el desarrollo de la inteligencia artificial y una red de computadoras omnipresente, temas enfocados en especial a la identidad del ser humano y lo particular de su existencia. El manga trata más extensamente estos temas, pues Kusanagi y sus colegas se enfrentan tanto a peligros y acertijos externos como a conflictos internos acerca de su propia naturaleza, debido a que son más máquinas que seres humanos.

El tema principal del manga (y la única historia presente en la película) es la persecución de un criminal de los medios electrónicos, conocido como el Puppet Master (el Maestro de Marionetas, en la traducción española), y cuya identidad se desconoce. El “Puppet Master” ha cometido varios crímenes con un único modus operandi: el “ghost hacking”, que consiste en irrumpir y tomar control de la mente de un ser humano. Al desvelar el misterio del “Puppet Master“, los agentes de la Sección 9 comprenden que no se trata de un criminal común y corriente, sino de un proyecto de inteligencia artificial autónoma que pertenece al gobierno, el mismo gobierno al que la Sección 9 presta servicios, y se ha fugado a la espera de un cuerpo de verdad y una identidad humana. Si bien en principio Kusanagi se muestra escéptica, finalmente cede para que el “Puppet Master” se una a su conciencia y comparta su cuerpo, lo que hace con la intención de sacar a relucir aún más dudas acerca de la naturaleza de la identidad humana, en un mundo donde la conciencia humana ya no es algo tan particular.

El manga es conocido por la gran cantidad de notas al pie de página y comentarios del propio Shirow, tanto del contexto socio-tecnológico como político de la obra.

Ver online:

http://www.atp.com.ar/post/Comics_%2F_Anime/172251/Ghost_in_the_Shell_720p_Audio_Latino_HBO.html

http://www.divxonline.info/pelicula-divx/1606/Ghost-in-the-shell-1995/

Ghost in the Shell (GHOST IN THE SHELL/攻殻機動隊, Gōsuto In Za Sheru/Kōkaku Kidōtai, lit. Ghost in the Shell/Mobile Armoured Riot Police) is a 1995 anime film directed by Mamoru Oshii; an adaptation of the manga Ghost in the Shell by Masamune Shirow, produced by Production I.G, and written by Kazunori Itō. A sequel, Innocence, was released in 2004.

In 2029, the world is connected by a global electronic network. Tokyo has a network security force called Section 9, which is on a mission to arrest the elite hacker known as the Puppet Master. Major Motoko Kusanagi, a cyborg officer, leads the investigation and finds that the Puppet Master hacks human minds and leaves victims with implanted fake memories. Kusanagi questions her own existence as an artificial construct, wondering if there is something more. As the investigation goes on, she learns that the Puppet Master may have answers for her and is looking for her.

Adaptation

The film adaptation presents the story’s themes in a more serious, atmospheric and slow-paced manner than the manga. In addition, in order to condense the manga into 82 minutes of screen time, the movie excludes the subplots in order to focus exclusively on the “Puppet Master” plot.

The opening lines of voice-over in the 1995 anime Ghost in the Shell establish the setting as New Port City. In this film, the city’s visual style is modeled upon Hong Kong. Characters seen on signs are in Chinese, rather than Japanese. The writing depicted on the scenery is Chinese Hànzì characters, which are also used in written Japanese (kanji), but omits hiragana and katakana which are both exclusively used in written Japanese.

North America

The movie was applauded as one of the first anime films to seamlessly blend computer and cell animation (after Macross Plus Movie Edition). It was one of the first anime features to cross over to non-anime fans in North America.

Ghost in the Shell made an impression on a number of filmmakers. Larry and Andy Wachowski, the creators of The Matrix and its sequels, showed it to producer Joel Silver, saying “we wanna do that for real.” Director James Cameron has called it “the first truly adult animation film to reach a level of literary and visual excellence.”

The film gained a little notoriety after The Tonight Show host Conan O’Brien and sidekick Andy Richter visited Bang Zoom, a dubbing studio in Burbank, CA. The scene they have dubbed was the pre-shootout sequence, which O’Brien and Richter are ad-libbing nonsense about fishes and breasts, as they were depicted on the scene. However, the nudity and gore have been censored due to being shown to a network audience.

Ghost in the Shell 2.0 (GHOST IN THE SHELL/攻殻機動隊 2.0, Gōsuto In Za Sheru/Kōkaku Kidōtai 2.0?) is a reproduced version of its original 1995 counterpart. It was produced in celebration for the release of The Sky Crawlers in 2008.[4][5] For the films Version 2.0 release, all the original animations were re-produced with latest digital film and animation technologies, such as 3D-CGI. The original soundtrack was also re-organized and re-recorded.

Japanese music composer Kenji Kawai, who orchestrated the score for the original 1995 production, remixed the Version 2.0 soundtrack in 6.1 Channel Surround. Academy Award Winner Randy Thom of Skywalker Sound reprised his role as Sound Designer, after previously working on Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, and whose credits also include work on Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within.[4]

To complement the new soundtrack, Japanese voice dialogue was also re-recorded, with some variation from the original script to make use of more recent colloquial phrases in modern speech. Notably, the original male voice actor for the character of the “Puppet Master”, Iemasa Kayumi, has been replaced by the female voice actor Yoshiko Sakakibara (Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence ‘s Harraway, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex ‘s Prime Minister Yoko Kayabuki).

The North American release for the film was scheduled to be distributed by Warner Bros. Home Entertainment on the DVD and Blu-ray format. The Special Edition release was scheduled to include the original 1995 release alongside the Version 2.0 on a Double Layer Blu-ray, and complimented with the inclusion of a soundtrack CD and booklet with commentary detailing the Version 2.0 production. This has since changed and Manga Entertainment will actually be releasing the film on Blu-ray. Early copies leaked to Best Buy shelves before the November 24th, 2009 street date. The original version of the movie is included on the disc as an upscaled version of Manga’s previous DVD release. The original English dub was used for the new 2.0 version with the new sound effects.

See online: http://www.megavideo.com/?v=WPH64WZM